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Coated stainless steel 441 as interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cells: Evolution of electrical properties

Authors Jan Gustav Grolig , Jan Froitzheim, Jan-Erik Svensson
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 284, Pages: 321–327
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract AISI 441 coated with a double layer coating of 10 nm cerium (inner layer) and 630 nm cobalt was investigated and in addition the uncoated material was exposed for comparison. The main purpose of this investigation was the development of a suitable ASR characterization method. The material was exposed to a simulated cathode atmosphere of air with 3% water at 850 C and the samples were exposed for up to 1500 h. We compared two methods of ASR measurements, an in-situ method where samples were measured with platinum electrodes for longer exposure times and an ex-situ method where pre-oxidized samples were measured for only very short measurement times. It was found that the ASR of ex-situ characterized samples could be linked to the mass gain and the electrical properties could be linked to the evolving microstructure during the different stages of exposure. Both the degradation of the electric performance and the oxygen uptake (mass gain) followed similar trends. After about 1500 h of exposure an ASR value of about 15 mΩcm2 was reached. The in-situ measured samples suffered from severe corrosion attack during measurement. After only 500 h of exposure already a value of 35 mΩcm2 was obtained.
Keywords ASR; Interconnect; AISI 441; SOFC; Corrosion; Platinum
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.029
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Steam-promoted CO2 flux in dual-phase CO2 separation membranes

Authors Wen Xing, Thijs Peters, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Anna Evans, Partow Pakdel Henriksen, Truls Norby, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 482, Pages: 115–119
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Steam dissolving into molten carbonates through the formation of hydroxide ions could contribute to the permeation of CO2 in dual-phase membranes under certain conditions. In this work, ceria (CeO2) supported dual-phase membranes was fabricated and the effect of steam on the transport properties has been investigated by means of flux measurements. The results show an approximate 30% increase of the CO2 flux when 2.5% steam is introduced to the feed side, while an approximate 250–300% increase of the CO2 flux is observed when introducing the same amount of steam to the sweep side. These phenomena and transport mechanisms are explained by the theory of ambipolar permeation of CO2 via various combinations of charged species.
Keywords Dual-phase; CO2 separation membrane; Steam; Flux
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.02.029
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Electrical conductivity and thermopower of (1 − x) BiFeO3 – xBi0.5K0.5TiO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2) ceramics near the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition

Authors E. T. Wefring, M.-A. Einarsrud and T. Grande
Source
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume: 17, Issue: 14, Pages: 9420-9428
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Ferroelectric BiFeO3 has attractive properties such as high strain and polarization, but a wide range of applications of bulk BiFeO3 are hindered due to high leakage currents and a high coercive electric field. Here, we report on the thermal behaviour of the electrical conductivity and thermopower of BiFeO3 substituted with 10 and 20 mol% Bi0.5K0.5TiO3. A change from p-type to n-type conductivity in these semi-conducting materials was demonstrated by the change in the sign of the Seebeck coefficient and the change in the slope of the isothermal conductivity versus partial pressure of O. A minimum in the isothermal conductivity was observed at [similar]10−2 bar O2 partial pressure for both solid solutions. The strong dependence of the conductivity on the partial pressure of O2 was rationalized by a point defect model describing qualitatively the conductivity involving oxidation/reduction of Fe3+, the dominating oxidation state of Fe in stoichiometric BiFeO3. The ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition of 80 and 90 mol% BiFeO3 was observed at 648 15 and 723 15 C respectively by differential thermal analysis and confirmed by dielectric spectroscopy and high temperature powder X-ray diffraction.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00266D
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Structure and conductivity of acceptor doped La2BaZnO5 and Nd2BaZnO5

Authors Md. Khairul Hoque, Reidar Haugsrud, Christopher S. Knee
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 272, Pages: 160–165
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract The effect of calcium substitution on the structure and electrical conductivity of Ln2 − xCaxBaZnO5 − δ, Ln = La and Nd, has been studied. Differing trends with respect to dependence of the unit cell volume were observed as a function of Ca substitution. For both series of materials the limit of Ca substitution was estimated to be x ≈ 0.2. The electrical conductivity was studied in the temperature range of 1000–350 C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in argon and oxygen atmospheres and via isotherms between 400 and 1000 C as function of oxygen pressure and the water vapour pressure. A marked increase in conductivity of approx. two orders of magnitude was explained by the presence of oxygen vacancies in the calcium doped samples. At pO2 < 10− 12 atm the x = 0.15 materials are predominantly oxygen ion conductors, and La1.85Ca0.15BaZnO5 − δ displays a peak conductivity of 0.002 S cm− 1 at 1000 C. The materials display a rise in conductivity in oxidizing conditions, indicating a significant p-type contribution.
Keywords Oxide ion conductor; Mixed conductor; Synthesis; Impedance spectroscopy; SOFC
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2015.02.001
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Dual atmosphere study of the K41X stainless steel for interconnect application in high temperature water vapour electrolysis

Authors M.R. Ardigo, I. Popa, L. Combemale, S. Chevalier, F. Herbst, P. Girardon
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 40, Issue: 15, Pages: 5305–5312
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract High temperature water vapour electrolysis (HTE) is one of the most efficient technologies for mass hydrogen production. A major technical difficulty related to high temperature water vapour electrolysis is the development of interconnects working efficiently for a long period. Working temperature of 800 C enables the use of metallic materials as interconnects. High temperature corrosion behaviour and electrical conductivity of a commercial stainless steel, K41X (AISI 441), were tested in HTE dual atmosphere (95%O2-5%H20/10%H2-90%H2O) at 800 C. The alloy exhibits a very good oxidation resistance compared to single atmosphere tests. However, a supplied electrical current significantly changes the nature of the oxides that form during the test. A very good Area Specific Resistance (ASR) parameter was measured in dual atmosphere, much lower than the values obtained in single atmosphere tests.
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.01.116
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Solid oxide fuel cells with (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg)O3-δ electrolyte film deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, His-Chuan Lu, Yung-Fu Hsu, Yi-Xuan Hu
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 281, Pages: 258–264
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing a high quality La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) film deposited on anode supported substrate using RF magnetron sputtering are successfully prepared. The anode substrate is composed of two functional NiO/Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (SDC) composite layers with ratios of 60/40 wt% and 50/50 wt% and a current collector layer of pure NiO. The as-deposited LSGM film appears to be amorphous in nature. After post-annealing at 1000 C, a uniform and dense polycrystalline film with a composition of La0.87Sr0.13Ga0.85Mg0.15O3-δ and a thickness of 3.8 μm is obtained, which was well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite LSGM/La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) layer, with a ratio of 30/70 wt%, is used as the cathode. The SOFC prepared reveals a good mechanical integrity with no sign of cracking, delamination, or discontinuity among the interfaces. The total cell resistance of a single cell with LSGM electrolyte film declines from 0.60 to 0.10 Ω cm2 as the temperature escalates from 600 to 800 C and the open circuit voltage (OCV) ranges from 0.85 to 0.95 V. The maximum power density (MPD) of the single cell is reported as 0.65, 1.02, 1.30, 1.42, and 1.38 W cm−2 at 600, 650, 700, 750, and 800 C, respectively. The good cell performance leads to the conclusion that RF magnetron sputtering is a feasible deposition method for preparing good quality LSGM films in SOFCs.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Sputtering; Electrolyte; Doped lanthanum gallate
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.185
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Phase equilibria in the Cs2MoO4–ZnMoO4–Zr(MoO4)2 system, Crystal structures and properties of new triple molybdates Cs2ZnZr(MoO4)4 and Cs2ZnZr2(MoO4)6

Authors Galina D. Tsyrenova, Sergey F. Solodovnikov, Nadezhda N. Popova, Zoya A. Solodovnikova, Erzhena T. Pavlova, Dmitry Yu. Naumov, Bogdan I. Lazoryak
Source
Volume: 81, Pages: 93–99
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Subsolidus phase relations in the Cs2MoO4–ZnMoO4–Zr(MoO4)2 system were determined and two new compounds, Cs2ZnZr(MoO4)4 and Cs2ZnZr2(MoO4)6, were obtained. The structure of Cs2ZnZr(MoO4)4 (a=5.7919(1) , c=8.0490(3) ; space group P View the MathML source3m1; Z=0.5; R=0.0149) belongs to the layered glaserite-like KAl(MoO4)2 structure type where the octahedral Al3+ positions are statistically occupied by 0.5 Zn2++0.5 Zr4+. The second triple molybdate, Cs2ZnZr2(MoO4)6 (a=13.366(1) , c=12.253(3) , space group R View the MathML source3, Z=3, R=0.0324), is isostructural to Cs2MnZr2(MoO4)6 and Cs2M2Zr(MoO4)6 (M=Al, Fe) and contains a mixed 3D framework built of МоO4 tetrahedra and (Zn, Zr)O6 octahedra sharing common vertices. Cesium cations are located in large channels of the framework. The latter compound undergoes a first-order phase transition at 723 K with considerable increasing its ionic conductivity.
Keywords Cesium; Zinc; Zirconium; Triple molybdates; Crystal structure; X-ray diffraction; IR and Raman spectra; Conductivity
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2015.01.015
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Binder Jetting: A Novel Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Fabrication Process and Evaluation

Authors Guha Manogharan, Meshack Kioko, Clovis Linkous
Source
JOM
Volume: 67, Issue: 3, Pages: 660-667
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract With an ever-growing concern to find a more efficient and less polluting means of producing electricity, fuel cells have constantly been of great interest. Fuel cells electrochemically convert chemical energy directly into electricity and heat without resorting to combustion/mechanical cycling. This article studies the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which is a high-temperature (100C to 1000C) ceramic cell made from all solid-state components and can operate under a wide range of fuel sources such as hydrogen, methanol, gasoline, diesel, and gasified coal. Traditionally, SOFCs are fabricated using processes such as tape casting, calendaring, extrusion, and warm pressing for substrate support, followed by screen printing, slurry coating, spray techniques, vapor deposition, and sputter techniques, which have limited control in substrate microstructure. In this article, the feasibility of engineering the porosity and configuration of an SOFC via an additive manufacturing (AM) method known as binder jet printing was explored. The anode, cathode and oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte layers were fabricated through AM sequentially as a complete fuel cell unit. The cell performance was measured in two modes: (I) as an electrolytic oxygen pump and (II) as a galvanic electricity generator using hydrogen gas as the fuel. An analysis on influence of porosity was performed through SEM studies and permeability testing. An additional study on fuel cell material composition was conducted to verify the effects of binder jetting through SEM–EDS. Electrical discharge of the AM fabricated SOFC and nonlinearity of permeability tests show that, with additional work, the porosity of the cell can be modified for optimal performance at operating flow and temperature conditions.
Remark DOI 10.1007/s11837-015-1296-9
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Hydrogen separation membranes based on dense ceramic composites in the La27W5O55.5–LaCrO3 system

Authors Jonathan M. Polfus, Wen Xing, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Christelle Denonville, Partow P. Henriksen, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 479, Pages: 39–45
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Some compositions of ceramic hydrogen permeable membranes are promising for integration in high temperature processes such as steam methane reforming due to their high chemical stability in large chemical gradients and CO2 containing atmospheres. In the present work, we investigate the hydrogen permeability of densely sintered ceramic composites (cercer) of two mixed ionic-electronic conductors: La27W3.5Mo1.5O55.5−δ (LWM) containing 30, 40 and 50 wt% La0.87Sr0.13CrO3−δ (LSC). Hydrogen permeation was characterized as a function of temperature, feed side hydrogen partial pressure (0.1–0.9 bar) with wet and dry sweep gas. In order to assess potentially limiting surface kinetics, measurements were also carried out after applying a catalytic Pt-coating to the feed and sweep side surfaces. The apparent hydrogen permeability, with contribution from both H2 permeation and water splitting on the sweep side, was highest for LWM70-LSC30 with both wet and dry sweep gas. The Pt-coating further enhances the apparent H2 permeability, particularly at lower temperatures. The apparent H2 permeability at 700 C in wet 50% H2 was 1.110−3 mL min−1 cm−1 with wet sweep gas, which is higher than for the pure LWM material. The present work demonstrates that designing dual-phase ceramic composites of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is a promising strategy for enhancing the ambipolar conductivity and gas permeability of dense ceramic membranes.
Keywords Hydrogen separation; Dense ceramic membrane; Ceramic–ceramic composite; Lanthanum tungstate; Lanthanum chromite
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.01.027
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Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

Authors Matthew L. Tate, Jennifer Hack, Xiaojun Kuang, Garry J. McIntyre, Ray L. Withers, Mark R. Johnson, Ivana Radosavljevic Evans
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 225, Pages: 383–390
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract A combined experimental and computational study of Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi0.9375Nb0.0625O1.5625, previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2√21 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi0.88Nb0.12O1.62 exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi0.9375Nb0.0625O1.5625 show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M4 and octahedral □M6 vacancies.
Keywords Functional oxides; Fast ion conductors; Complex superstructures
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jssc.2015.01.006
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Functional properties of La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ proton conductors where X is an alkaline earth cation

Authors Mariya E. Ivanova, Wilhelm A. Meulenberg, Justinas Palisaitis, Doris Sebold, Cecilia Sols, Mirko Ziegner, Jose M. Serra, Joachim Mayer, Michael Hnsel, Olivier Guillon
Source
Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Volume: 35, Issue: 4, Pages: 1239–1253
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Lanthanum niobates with general formulas of La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ (X = Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) were synthesized via the conventional solid state reaction. Specimens with relative density above 96% were produced after sintering. Structural and phase composition studies revealed predominant monoclinic Fergusonite structure for the majority of samples. SEM and TEM studies elucidated the effect of the used dopant combinations on grain growth, micro-crack formation and secondary phase formation. Results from microstructural study were correlated to the grain interior and grain boundary conductivities for selected samples (La0.99Sr0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99Sr0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ). The majority of co-doped niobates exhibited appreciable protonic conductivity under humid atmospheres at intermediate temperatures. Sr- or Ca-doped compounds displayed the highest total conductivities with values for LSNA equal to 6 10−4 S/cm and 3 10−4 S/cm in wet air and in wet 4% H2–Ar (900 C), respectively. Additionally, thermal expansion was studied to complete functional characterization of co-doped LaNbO4.
Keywords Proton-conducting ceramic materials; Hydrogen transport ceramic membranes; Rare earth ortho-niobates; Acceptor-doped lanthanum niobates
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2014.11.009
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Hydrogen permeation, water splitting and hydration kinetics in Nd5.4Mo0.3W0.7O12−δ

Authors Zuoan Li, Christian Kjlseth, Reidar Haugsrud
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 476, Pages: 105–111
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract To investigate transport properties of Mo-substituted Nd5.4Mo0.3W0.7O12−δ for hydrogen separation application, hydrogen fluxes of Nd5.4Mo0.3W0.7O12−δ have been measured in both dry and wet sweep gases. The fluxes in dry sweep gas show lower temperature dependence at high temperatures than at low temperatures. Comparing the hydrogen permeability among rare earth tungstates, it has been revealed that the larger the RE-site cation radius, the higher the hydrogen permeation. Water splitting effect for the wet sweep gas has been confirmed by mass spectrometry. Oxygen surface kinetics under oxidizing conditions has been studied by ToF-SIMS measurements, and is significantly faster under wet conditions than dry. Hydration kinetics has been studied by conductivity relaxation measurements under reducing conditions for the first time, showing a two-fold non-monotonic behavior.
Keywords Hydrogen permeation; Hydration kinetics; Water splitting; Oxygen surface kinetics; Nd5.4Mo0.3W0.7O12−δ
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2014.11.013
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Savitha Thayumanasundaram, Vijay Shankar Rangasamy, Niels De Greef, Jin Won Seo andJean-Pierre Locquet

Author Hybrid Polymer Electrolytes Based on a Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(acrylic acid) Blend and a Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquid for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Source
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Volume: 2015, Issue: 7, Pages: 1290–1299
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Polymer blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared with different molar ratios by a solvent-casting technique. The XRD patterns of the blends show that the degree of crystallinity of the PVA membranes decreases with the addition of PAA owing to the formation of interpenetrating polymer chains. The vibrational spectra of the blend membranes reveal the formation of strong hydrogen bonding between PVA and PAA. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) reveals that the storage modulus of a 25 mol-% PAA sample is comparable to that of pure PVA and, therefore, confirms the mechanical stability of the blend membranes. Significant changes in the peak areas and chemical shifts of the PVA hydroxyl signal (δ = 4–5 ppm) in the 1H NMR spectra of the blend membranes confirm the strong hydrogen bonding between the OH groups of PVA and PAA. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) with 0.2 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was added to the polymer blend to prepare flexible, nonvolatile hybrid polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. A maximum ionic conductivity of 1 mS cm–1 is observed at 90 C for the membrane with 70 mol-% IL.
Keywords Polymers;Ionic liquids;Hybrid membranes;Hydrogen bonds;Lithium batteries
Remark DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201402603
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Pure and Mn-doped La4SrTi5O17 layered perovskite as potential solid oxide fuel cell material: Structure and anodic performance

Authors Cdric Prillat-Merceroz, Pascal Roussel, Marielle Huv, Edouard Capoen, Sbastien Rosini, Patrick Glin, Rose-Nolle Vannier, Gilles H. Gauthier
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 274, Pages: 806–815
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Pure and 5% Mn doped layered perovskites La4SrTi5O17, members of the La4Srn-4(Ti,Mn)nO3n+2 series with n = 5, have been synthesized and investigated as anode materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The use of XRD, neutron and electron diffraction techniques allows clarifying some divergences concerning the structural characterization within the family, not only in air but also in anodic-like N2/H2(97/3) atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of both compounds is very low in air but those values increase by two orders of magnitude in diluted hydrogen. The study of catalytic properties for methane steam reforming as well as in-depth analysis of the SOFC anodic behaviour of both materials are described, for which a microstructure optimization of the electrode allows to demonstrate the potential interest of the lamellar materials upon the classical three-dimensional cubic-like LSTs.
Keywords SOFC; Anode; Layered perovskite; Titanate; Methane steam reforming; Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.10.131
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Electrochemical performance and carbon deposition resistance of Ce-doped La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.5Cr0.5O3-δ anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells fed with syngas

Authors Yi-Fei Sun, Jian-Hui Li, Kart T. Chuang, Jing-Li Luo
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 254, Pages: 483–487
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Ce-doped La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.5Cr0.5O3-δ (Ce-LSFC) perovskite anode catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells are successfully synthesized by a modified combustion method for the first time. The pure perovskite structure without formation of CeO2 is obtained when the content of Ce ≤ 10%. Compared with La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.5Cr0.5O3-δ anode, Ce-LSFC anode not only shows much higher catalytic activity towards the oxidation of syngas with less carbon deposition, but also displays better regeneration from coking. The enhanced performance is attributed to the more available oxygen vacancies in lattice and better oxygen mobility after doping with Ce.
Keywords SOFC; Ce-doped LSFC; Perovskite
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.10.090
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Visualization of conduction pathways in a lanthanum lithium titanate superionic conductor synthesized by rapid cooling

Authors Kazuhiro Mori, Shogo Tomihira, Kenji Iwase, Toshiharu Fukunaga
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 268, Issue: A, Pages: 76-81
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Three-dimensional structure and conduction pathways of the lithium ions in 7Li0.4La0.53TiO3 quenched with liquid nitrogen were studied using reverse Monte Carlo modeling and the bond valence sum approach using neutron diffraction data. The lithium ions were primarily located in the region between the off-center positions of the A-sites and bottlenecks defined by four coordinating oxygen ions. The bottlenecks in the predicted conduction pathways of the lithium ions were classified into three types (I, II, and III) by their size. The type II bottlenecks were the most accessible to lithium-ion migration and more than 70% of the bottlenecks were type II.
Keywords Lithium-ion conductor; Lanthanum lithium titanate; Local structure; Neutron diffraction; Reverse Monte Carlo modeling; Bond valence sum
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2014.09.030
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Functional properties of La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ proton conductors where X is an alkaline earth cation

Authors Mariya E. Ivanovaa, Wilhelm A. Meulenberga, Justinas Palisaitisb, Doris Sebolda, Cecilia Solsd, Mirko Ziegnere, Jose M. Serrad, Joachim Mayerb, Michael Hnsele, Olivier Guillona
Source
Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Time of Publication: 2014-12
Abstract Lanthanum niobates with general formulas of La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99X0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ (X = Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) were synthesized via the conventional solid state reaction. Specimens with relative density above 96% were produced after sintering. Structural and phase composition studies revealed predominant monoclinic Fergusonite structure for the majority of samples. SEM and TEM studies elucidated the effect of the used dopant combinations on grain growth, micro-crack formation and secondary phase formation. Results from microstructural study were correlated to the grain interior and grain boundary conductivities for selected samples (La0.99Sr0.01Nb0.99Al0.01O4−δ and La0.99Sr0.01Nb0.99Ti0.01O4−δ). The majority of co-doped niobates exhibited appreciable protonic conductivity under humid atmospheres at intermediate temperatures. Sr- or Ca-doped compounds displayed the highest total conductivities with values for LSNA equal to 6 10−4 S/cm and 3 10−4 S/cm in wet air and in wet 4% H2–Ar (900 C), respectively. Additionally, thermal expansion was studied to complete functional characterization of co-doped LaNbO4.
Keywords Proton-conducting ceramic materials, Hydrogen transport ceramic membranes, Rare earth ortho-niobates, Acceptor-doped lanthanum niobates, ProGasMix
Remark Link

Versatile apparatus for thermoelectric characterization of oxides at high temperatures

Authors Matthias Schrade, Harald Fjeld, Truls Norby and Terje G. Finstad
Source
Review of Scientific Instruments
Volume: 85, Pages: 103906
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract An apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is presented and characterized. The device can be used in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 1050 C and in all common atmospheres, including oxidizing, reducing, humid, and inert. The apparatus is suitable for samples with different geometries (disk-, bar-shaped), allowing a complete thermoelectric characterization (including thermal conductivity) on a single sample. The Seebeck coefficient α can be measured in both sample directions (in-plane and cross-plane) simultaneously. Electrical conductivity is measured via the van der Pauw method. Perovskite-type CaMnO3 and the misfit cobalt oxide (Ca2CoO3) q (CoO2) are studied to demonstrate the temperature range and to investigate the variation of the electrical properties as a function of the measurement atmosphere.
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4897489
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Electrochemical behavior of the pyrochlore- and fluorite-like solid solutions in the Pr2O3–ZrO2 system. Part I

Authors D.A. Belov, A.V. Shlyakhtina, J.C.C. Abrantes, S.A. Chernyak, G.A. Gasymova, O.K. Karyagina, L.G. Shcherbakova
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract We have studied the structure, microstructure, and electrochemical properties in air of (Pr2 − xZrx)Zr2O7 + x/2 (x = 0.15, 0.32, 0.78), Pr2Zr2O7, and Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 (x = 0.1, 0.4, 1) materials. The solid solutions were prepared through coprecipitation followed by heat treatment of the precursors at 1550 C for 4 h. According to XRD data, the extent of the pyrochlore-like Pr2 xZr2 xO7 x/2 solid solutions at 1550 C is ~ 6 mol.%, which is considerably smaller than that in the NdZrO and SmZrO systems at this temperature. Among the pyrochlores, the highest bulk conductivity was offered by the (Pr2 − xZrx)Zr2O7 + x/2 (x = 0.15): 7.15 10− 3 S/cm at 800 C (Ea = 0.66 eV). The pyrochlore-like Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 (x = 0.1) had lower conductivity (3.97 10− 3 S/cm at 800 C). The highest bulk conductivity among the materials studied was found in the Pr2O3-rich fluorite-like Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 with x = 1: ~ 0.217 S/cm at 800 C (Ea = 0.0.31 eV). The temperature-dependent conductivity of the Pr2O3-rich fluorite-like solid solutions Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 with x = 0.4 and 1 had a break at 560 C, suggesting a change in the mechanism of ion transport at this temperature.
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2014.09.035
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Thermal Depolarization in the High-Temperature Ternary Piezoelectric System xPbTiO3–yBiScO3–zBi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3

Authors Troy Y. Ansell, David P. Cann, Eva Sapper and Jrgen Rdel
Source
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract In the high-temperature ternary perovskite piezoelectric system xPbTiO3–yBiScO3–zBi(Ni1/2,Ti1/2)O3 (PT–BS–BNiT), the addition of bismuth to the A site and nickel to the B site leads to compositions that exhibit diffuse relaxor-like behavior. For these, depolarization temperature, not Curie point, is the critical value of temperature. Depolarization temperature (Td) is defined as the temperature at which the steepest loss in polarization occurs. This temperature is observed in poled materials through two different methods: loss tangent measurements and in situ d33. Across the ternary system, multiple dielectric anomalies occurred which was observed in dielectric tests where the dielectric peak broadens and becomes frequency dependent as BNiT content increased. For different compositions, the value of Td ranged between 275C–375C. Values for the piezoelectric coefficient increased with temperature up to d33 = 1000 pC/N during in situ d33. High temperature (up to 190C) and high field (up to 40 kV/cm) were also applied to test ferroelectric properties in these regimes.
Remark DOI: 10.1111/jace.13268
Link

Characterization and Modeling of La 1 − x Sr x CoO 3 − δ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Using Nonlinear Electrochemical Impedance Techniques

Author Timothy James McDonald
Source
Time of Publication: 2014
Remark Dissertation
Link

Structural and electrical study of samarium doped cerium oxide thin films prepared by e-beam evaporation

Authors Darius Virbukas, Mantas Sriubas, Giedrius Laukaitis
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Samarium doped cerium oxide (Sm0.15Ce0.85O1.925, SDC) thin films were grown on the Alloy 600 (Fe–Ni–Cr) and optical quartz (SiO2) substrates using e-beam deposition technique. Formed SDC thin films were characterized using different X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and impedance spectroscopy. The deposition rate of formed SDC thin films was changed from 2 /s to 16 /s. XRD analysis shows that all thin films have a cubic (FCC) structure and repeat the crystallographic orientation of the initial powders evaporated with different deposition rate and on different substrates. The crystallite size increases from 7.7 nm to 10.3 nm and from 7.2 nm to 9.2 nm on Alloy 600 substrate and optical quartz (SiO2) substrate respectively as the thin film deposition rate increases. SEM images indicate a dense and homogeneous structure of all formed SDC thin films. The ionic conductivity depends on thin films density and blocking factor. The best ionic conductivity (σg = 1.34 Sm− 1 and σgb = 2.29 Sm −1 at 873 K temperature, activation energy ΔEg = 0.91 eV and ΔEgb = 0.99 eV) was achieved for SDC thin films formed at 4 /s deposition rate. It was found that the highest density (5.25 g/cm3) and the lowest relaxation time in grain (τg = 9.83 10− 7 s), and the lowest blocking factor (0.39) is in SDC thin films formed at 4 /s deposition rate. The deposition rate influences the stoichiometry of the formed SDC thin ceramic films.
Keywords Electron beam deposition; Samarium doped ceria oxide (SDC); Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Ionic conductivity
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2014.09.036
Link

Electrical conductivity and TG-DSC study of hydration of Sc-doped CaSnO3 and CaZrO3

Authors Andreas Lken, Christian Kjlseth, Reidar Haugsrud
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 267, Pages: 61–67
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Correlations linking hydration thermodynamics to materials parameters can be of vital importance for further development of proton conducting oxides. However, the currently proposed correlations are troubled by scattering limiting their predictive power. As such, the present contribution has investigated Sc-doped CaSnO3 and CaZrO3 in an attempt to further elucidate the trends in the thermodynamics of hydration for perovskites. Conductivity and impedance spectroscopy on 5 and 10% Sc-doped CaSnO3 demonstrated that it is primarily an oxygen ion conductor with a small protonic contribution at lower temperatures (below 500 C) under wet conditions. Simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), TG-DSC, was applied to measure the standard molar hydration enthalpy of CaSn1−xScxO3−δ and CaZr1−xScxO3−δ (x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) as a function of the Sc concentration. The hydration enthalpy becomes increasingly negative with increasing Sc substitution, which is discussed on the basis of changes in electronegativity, basicity and tolerance factor.
Keywords Defects; Protons; Hydration; Thermodynamics; Perovskites
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2014.09.006
Link

Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of alluaudite-like triple molybdate Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24

Authors Aleksandra A. Savina, Sergey F. Solodovnikov, Dmitry A. Belov, Olga M. Basovich, Zoya A. Solodovnikova, Konstantin V. Pokholok, Sergey Yu. Stefanovich, Bogdan I. Lazoryak, Elena G. Khaikina
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 220, Pages: 217–220
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract A new triple molybdate Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24 was synthesized using solid state reactions and studied with X-ray powder diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, differential scanning calorimetry, Mssbauer and dielectric impedance spectroscopy. Single crystals of Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24 were obtained and its structure was solved (the space group P View the MathML source1, a=12.5814(5), b=13.8989(5), c=28.4386(9) , α=90.108(2), β=90.064(2), γ=90.020(2), V=4973.0(3) 3, Z=2, R=0.0440). Characteristic features of the structure are polyhedral layers composed of pairs of edge-shared FeO6 and (Fe, Na)O6 octahedra, which are connected by bridging МоО4 tetrahedra. The layers share common vertices with bridging МоО4 tetrahedra to form an open 3D framework with the cavities occupied by the Cs+ and Na+ cations. The compound undergoes first-order phase transformation at 642 K and above this phase transition, electrical conductivity reaches 10−3–10−2 S cm−1. Thus, Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24 may be considered as a promising compound for developing new materials with high ionic conductivity.
Keywords Triple molybdate; Sodium; Synthesis; Crystal structure; Phase transition; Ionic conductivity
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2014.09.004
Link

Hydrogen permeability of SrCe0.7Zr0.25Ln0.05O3−δ membranes (Ln=Tm and Yb)

Authors Wen Xing, Paul Inge Dahl, Lasse Valland Roaas, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Yngve Larring, Partow P. Henriksen, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 473, Pages: 327–332
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Zr substituted acceptor doped SrCeO3 materials were synthesized by citric acid route and characterized by XRD and SEM. The hydrogen flux of the materials was measured as a function of temperature and hydrogen partial pressure on the feed side. The hydrogen permeability for SrCe0.7Zr0.25Tm0.05O3−δ and SrCe0.7Zr0.25Yb0.05O3−δ is similar under our measurement window and shows the same hydrogen partial pressure dependency. Under short circuit condition, the hydrogen permeability increased significantly by more than one order of magnitude indicating that the hydrogen transport is limited by electronic conduction under open circuit conditions. The observed data were discussed by applying defect chemistry and the conventional ambipolar transport theory. After the hydrogen permeation measurements, the indication of kinetic cation de-mixing was found by XRD analysis.
Keywords Co-substitution of B site; Hydrogen flux; Permeability; Acceptor doping; SrCeO3
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2014.09.027
Link
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