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Published references for ProboStat™

These publications have a reference to ProboStat™ or other NorECs products

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Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

Authors R. Manabe, S. Okada, R. Inagaki, K. Oshima, S. Ogo & Y. Sekine
Source
Nature Scientific Reports
Volume: 6, Pages: Article number: 38007
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics.
Keywords Catalytic mechanisms, Energy, Heterogeneous catalysis, Surface spectroscopy
Remark doi:10.1038/srep38007
Link

Sm6-xMoO12-δ (x = 0, 0.5) and Sm6WO12 – Mixed electron-proton conducting materials

Authors A.V. Shlyakhtina, S.N. Savvin, N.V. Lyskov, D.A. Belov, A.N. Shchegolikhin, I.V. Kolbanev, O.K. Karyagina, S.A. Chernyak, L.G. Shcherbakova, P. Nez
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Samarium molybdates Sm6-xMoO12-δ (x = 0, 0.5) and samarium tungstate Sm6WO12 – potential mixed electron-proton conductors have been studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and impedance spectroscopy (in ambient air and in dry and wet air). Solid solutions differing in structure have been obtained in the Sm2O3-MoO3 system at 1600 C. The samarium molybdate Sm6MoO12 has the fluorite structure (Fm3m). The less samarium rich solid solution Sm5.5MoO11.25 crystallizes in a rhombohedral (View the MathML sourceR3) structure. The morphotropic transformation is due to the change in the chemical composition of the solid solution with decreasing Sm3 + concentration. The total conductivity of the cubic fluorite phase Sm6MoO12 at 750 C in air (1.48 10− 3 S/cm, Ea = 1.22 eV) is an order of magnitude higher than that of rhombohedral Sm5.5MoO11.25 (2.34 10− 4 S/cm, Ea = 1.11 eV). At low temperatures (T < 500 C), the Arrhenius plot of total conductivity for Sm6MoO12 and Sm5.5MoO11.25 in air deviates from linearity, suggesting that there is a proton contribution to its conductivity at these temperatures, like in the case of the Sm5.4Zr0.6MoO12.3 zirconium-doped molybdate. Below ~ 500 C, Sm6MoO12 fluorite and fluorite-like Sm6WO12 have identical Arrhenius plots of conductivity in ambient air. The region of dominant proton conductivity is wider for Sm6WO12 than Sm6MoO12, reaching temperatures as high as 750 С for the former. The absolute values of total conductivity obtained for samarium tungstate and molybdate at 400 С in wet air are virtually identical and close to 3 10− 6 S/cm, which suggests the conductivity of both compounds is dominated by protons at low temperatures and the proton transport numbers are similar.
Keywords Phase transition; Fluorite; Fluorite-like phase; Proton-conducting membranes; Proton conductivity; Electron conductivity
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2017.01.020
Link

The effect of Zr-substitution in La1‐xSrxCo0.2M0.6Zr0.2O3‐δ (M = Fe, Mn) on the crystal structure, thermal expansion and electronic transport properties

Authors Vegar ygarden, Tor Grande
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 301, Pages: 53–58
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The effect of Zr-substitution on the evolution of crystal structure, thermal expansion and the electronic transport properties is reported for La1‐xSrxCo0.2Fe0.6Zr0.2O3‐δ (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) and La1‐xSrxCo0.2Mn0.6Zr0.2O3-δ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3). La1‐xSrxCo0.2Fe0.6Zr0.2O3‐δ was found to be single-phase for the compositions investigated. The electrical conductivity of La1‐xSrxCo0.2Fe0.6Zr0.2O3‐δ demonstrated a maximum for x = 0.5, while the area specific resistance was shown to decrease significantly with increasing Sr-content due to an increased concentration of oxygen vacancies. No signs of oxygen vacancy ordering were observed. The area specific resistance of La0.3Sr0.7Co0.2Fe0.6Zr0.2O3‐δ at 600 C is close to an order of magnitude lower than reported values for La0.4Sr0.6Co0.2Fe0.8O3‐δ. The series La1‐xSrxCo0.2Mn0.6Zr0.2O3‐δ was found as multiphase materials. The stability of both series is discussed with respect to the red-ox properties of the transition metals.
Keywords Perovskite; Zr-substitution; X-ray diffraction; Electrical conductivity; Thermal expansion
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2017.01.011
Link

Co- and Ce/Co-coated ferritic stainless steel as interconnect material for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors Hannes Falk-Windisch, , Julien Claquesin, Mohammad Sattari, Jan-Erik Svensson, Jan Froitzheim
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 343, Pages: 1-10
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Chromium species volatilization, oxide scale growth, and electrical scale resistance were studied at 650 and 750 C for thin metallic Co- and Ce/Co-coated steels intended to be utilized as the interconnect material in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFC). Mass gain was recorded to follow oxidation kinetics, chromium evaporation was measured using the denuder technique and Area Specific Resistance (ASR) measurements were carried out on 500 h pre-exposed samples. The microstructure of thermally grown oxide scales was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). The findings of this study show that a decrease in temperature not only leads to thinner oxide scales and less Cr vaporization but also to a significant change in the chemical composition of the oxide scale. Very low ASR values (below 10 mΩ cm2) were measured for both Co- and Ce/Co-coated steel at 650 and 750 C, indicating that the observed change in the chemical composition of the Co spinel does not have any noticeable influence on the ASR. Instead it is suggested that the Cr2O3 scale is expected to be the main contributor to the ASR, even at temperatures as low as 650 C.
Keywords Interconnect; Solid oxide fuel cell; Corrosion; Cr vaporization; Area specific resistance; Coating
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.01.045
Link

Characterization of laser-processed thin ceramic membranes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

Authors J.A. Cebollero, R. Lahoz, M.A. Laguna-Bercero, J.I. Pea, A. Larrea, V.M. Orera
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract By laser machining we have prepared thin and self-supported yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes that can be used in electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells for reducing the operation temperature. The membranes, which are supported by thicker areas of the same material, have an active area of ∼20 μm in thickness and up to 8 mm in diameter. Buckling limits the maximum size of the thin areas to below 1 mm, the overall effective active area being formed by multiple thin areas bounded by ribs. Electron Backscattering Diffraction experiments determined that there are not significant strains inside the membranes and that the heat-affected zone is confined to a shallow layer of ∼1–2 μm. The bending strength of the membranes decreases by ∼26% as a result of the surface microcracking produced by the laser machining. The membranes have a roughness of ∼2.5 μm and are coated by a layer of nanoparticles produced by the laser ablation. This coating and small roughness is not detrimental for the cathodic polarization of the cells. Conversely, the cathode polarization resistance decreases ∼5% in the 650–850 C temperature range.
Keywords SOFC; Solid electrolytes; Laser machining; Self-supporting ceramic membranes
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.112
Link

Tuning of nonlinear optical and ferroelectric properties via the cationic composition of Ca9.5–1.5xBixCd(VO4)7 solid solutions

Authors N.G. Dorbakov, O.V. Baryshnikova, V.A. Morozov, A.A. Belik, Y. Katsuya, M. Tanaka, S.Yu. Stefanovich, B.I. Lazoryak
Source
Materials & Design
Volume: 116, Pages: 515–523
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Ca9.5–1.5xBixCd(VO4)7 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) solid solutions with the whitlockite-type structure (SG R3c) were synthesized by a standard solid-state method in air. Structures of Ca9.5–1.5xBixCd(VO4)7 (x = 0.167, 0.5, 0.833) were refined by the Rietveld method from synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. Nonlinear optical properties of the whitlockite-type compounds can be designed and increased by an order of magnitude through appropriate isovalent and aliovalent substitutions for Ca2+ cations. Dielectric and temperature second harmonic generation investigations revealed the presence of a reversible ferroelectric phase transition in the range from 1331 K to 1055 K. The phase transition temperature monotonically decreases while nonlinear optical activity of Ca9.5–1.5xBixCd(VO4)7 strongly increases with increasing Bi3+ content.
Keywords Vanadates; Ferroelectric properties; Nonlinear optical properties; Crystal structure
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.11.107
Link

The structural and electrical properties of samarium doped ceria films formed by e-beam deposition technique

Authors Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Sm2O3-doped CeO2 (Sm0.15Ce0.85O1.925, SDC) thin films were formed by e-beam evaporation method. Thin films were formed evaporating micro powders (particle size varied from 0.3 to 0.5 μm). The influence of deposition rate on formed thin film structures and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The deposition rate of formed SDC thin films was changed from 2 to 16 /s. The electrical properties were investigated as a function of frequency (0.1–106 Hz) at different temperatures (473–873 K). The formed SDC thin ceramic films repeat the crystallographic orientation of the initial powders using different substrates and different deposition rate. It was determined that crystallites size and samarium concentration are decreasing by increasing the deposition rate. The crystallites size decreased from 17.0 nm to 10.4 nm when SDC thin films were deposited on Alloy 600 (Fe-Ni-Cr), and decreased from 13.7 nm to 8.9 nm when were used optical quartz substrate. The best ionic conductivity σtot = 1.66 Sm− 1 at 873 K temperature, activation energy ΔEa = 0.87 eV (σg = 1.66 Sm− 1, σgb = 1.66 Sm− 1) was achieved when 2 /s deposition rate was used. The grain size (in the formed SDC thin films) was ~ 83 nm in this case.
Keywords Electron beam deposition; Samarium doped ceria oxide (SDC); Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Ionic conductivity
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.12.003
Link

Interstitial oxygen as a source of p-type conductivity in hexagonal manganites

Authors Sandra H. Skjrv, Espen T. Wefring, Silje K. Nesdal, Nikolai H. Gauks, Gerhard H. Olsen, Julia Glaum, Thomas Tybell & Sverre M. Selbach
Source
Nature Communications
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Hexagonal manganites, h-RMnO3 (R=Sc, Y, Ho–Lu), have been intensively studied for their multiferroic properties, magnetoelectric coupling, topological defects and electrically conducting domain walls. Although point defects strongly affect the conductivity of transition metal oxides, the defect chemistry of h-RMnO3 has received little attention. We use a combination of experiments and first principles electronic structure calculations to elucidate the effect of interstitial oxygen anions, Oi, on the electrical and structural properties of h-YMnO3. Enthalpy stabilized interstitial oxygen anions are shown to be the main source of p-type electronic conductivity, without reducing the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization. A low energy barrier interstitialcy mechanism is inferred from Density Functional Theory calculations to be the microscopic migration path of Oi. Since the Oi content governs the concentration of charge carrier holes, controlling the thermal and atmospheric history provides a simple and fully reversible way of tuning the electrical properties of h-RMnO3.
Remark doi:10.1038/ncomms13745
Link

Oxygen ion conductivity in samarium and gadolinium stabilized cerium oxide heterostructures

Authors Marius Zienius, Kristina Bockute, Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Gadolinium (GDC) and samarium (SDC) doped ceria were investigated in terms of multilayer systems, evaporated by e-beam technique on optical quartz, Alloy600 and sapphire substrate. GDC-SDC heterostructures of 1.3 μm thicknesses, composed of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 layers and they were investigated by structural and ionic conductivity techniques. Bragg peaks show nanocrystalline state of Gd and Sm doped ceria thin films. XRD patterns show fluorite type structure with space group Fm3m. The XRD analysis of thin films, deposited on quartz substrate, reveals the increase of (220) peak with increasing number of layers. The decrease of (111) peak is slightly notable, also. Thin film heterostructures have a face-centered cubic cell with the following lattice parameters, such as 5.4180 nm for GDC of and of 5.4245 nm for SDC. The scanning electron microscopy cross sectional analysis of three-layered structure clearly indicates the interfaces of different material. There are no visually distinct discontinuities in higher layer structures (5–7 layers). Total conductivity increases linearly with increasing of temperature, but decreases with the increase of number of layers. The highest total ionic conductivity at 1214 K temperature for SDC and GDC thin monolayers was 1.62 S/m and 1.02 S/m, respectively. The activation energy increases with the increase of number of layer as well.
Keywords Multilayer electrolyte; SDC; GDC; e-Beam deposition
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.11.025
Link

A multistep model for the kinetic analysis of the impedance spectra of a novel mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode

Authors A. Donazzi, M. Maestri, G. Groppi
Source
Electrochimica Acta
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract A one-dimensional, heterogeneous and dynamic model is applied to kinetically analyze impedance experiments performed on a novel NdBa0.9Co2O5.6 (NBC) MIEC cathode. The model simulates the spectra in the time domain by accounting for the gas diffusion inside the electrode pores, and for the solid state diffusion of oxygen vacancies inside the bulk of the cathodic material. A detailed kinetic scheme is applied to describe the oxygen reduction mechanism, which includes steps for adsorption and desorption, first and second electronation at the gas/electrode interface, and ion transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The kinetic investigation is based on impedance spectra collected on symmetric NBC/GDC/NBC cells, at open circuit voltage, between 550 and 700C, and 5–100% O2 molar fraction. The vacancies diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters of the reaction steps are fitted to describe the data. At the highest temperatures, a sensitivity analysis reveals that the rate determining step is the first electronation of the oxygen adatom, while the second electronation and the interfacial ion transport are kinetically irrelevant. Overall, the model allows to individuate the key parameters for capturing the kinetics of a MIEC cathode.
Keywords EIS; perovskites; kinetics; modeling
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.11.072
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Stability of NASICON materials against water and CO2 uptake

Authors M. Guin, S. Indris, M. Kaus, H. Ehrenberg, F. Tietz, O. Guillon
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract The stability in ambient conditions of a scandium-based NASICON material, Na3.4Sc2Si0.4P2.6O12, was investigated using impedance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) and multinuclear magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR). The presence of H2O and CO2 in samples stored in ambient air could be evidenced as well as its impact on the ionic conductivity of the samples. The detected amounts of water and CO2 in the samples had no influence on the measured conductivities at room temperature, which confirmed the absence of protonic conduction in hydrated samples. A loss of conductivity during heating of hydrated samples was due to a loss of contact between the ceramic and the electrode used for the conductivity measurement. The recommendation for handling of NASICON-type materials is therefore: samples require storage in an Ar-filled glove box or in a dry environment to avoid artefacts during high temperature measurements. Nevertheless, the stability of the NASICON-type materials is confirmed since their conductivity is not affected by the moisture.
Keywords Ionic conductivity; NASICON; Sodium; Scandium; ProGasMix
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.11.006
Link

AgI thin films prepared by laser ablation

Authors Svetlana V. Fokina, Eugene N. Borisov, Vladimir V. Tomaev, Ilya I. Tumkin, Yuri S. Tveryanovich
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 297, Pages: 64–67
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract High quality and uniform morphology AgI films consisting of crystal grains about 30 nm in size were obtained by the laser (XeCl) ablation method. The designed silver iodide films have crystalline structure, optical and electrical properties corresponding to stoichiometric compound films. We have demonstrated that the laser ablation method commonly used for the preparation of thin films and nanolayered structures with the defined thickness can be successfully used for the deposition of AgI superionic conductor layers as well. The films were studied by XRD, EDA, optical absorption, photoluminescence, and impedance spectroscopies.
Keywords Thin films; Laser ablation; Conductivity; Optical band gap; Luminescence; Morphology; Excitons; XRD; Electron microscopy
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.10.004
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Development of Temperature - Stable Relaxor Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitor Applications

Author Connor S. McCue
Source
Time of Publication: 2016
Remark THESIS
Link

Magnetron-Sputtered YSZ and CGO Electrolytes for SOFC

Authors A.A. Solovyev, A.V. Shipilova, I.V. Ionov, A.N. Kovalchuk, S.V. Rabotkin, and V.O. Oskirko
Source
Journal of Electronic Materials
Volume: 45, Issue: 8, Pages: 3921-3928
Time of Publication: 2016
Solid oxide fuel cell, CGO, YSZ, bilayer electrolyte, magnetron sputtering, pulse electron-beam treatment
Remark Link

Thermodynamic properties of the Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 nanopowders obtained by hydrothermal synthesis

Authors C.F. Rusti, V. Badilita, A.M. Sofronia, D. Taloi, E.M. Anghel, F. Maxim, C. Hornoiu, C. Munteanu, R.M. Piticescu, S. Tanasescu
Source
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume: 693, Pages: 1000–1010
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The paper is devoted to the investigation of the thermodynamic properties of nanostructured Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 perovskite material synthesized by hydrothermal method. The thermodynamic parameters obtained by a couple of measurements in both isothermal and dynamic regimes (drop calorimetry, solid-oxide electromotive force measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry), allow for the investigations of the thermodynamic stability in a large temperature range from room temperature to 1273 K. The influence of the oxygen stoichiometry on the thermodynamic properties was examined using a coulometric titration technique coupled with electromotive force measurements. The results are discussed based on the strong correlation between the thermodynamic parameters and the charge compensation of the material system. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the microstructure and morphology analyses. The variation of the thermal expansion and electrical conductivity associated with the structural changes has been evidenced by thermomechanical measurements and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Through a combined analysis of all the results, new features related to the understanding of the strong interplay between the thermodynamic properties, microstructure, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity in the hydrothermally prepared Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 perovskite material have been revealed.
Keywords Nanostructured materials; Chemical synthesis; Thermodynamic properties; Electromotive force, EMF; Calorimetry; X-ray diffraction
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.09.215
Link

Enhanced bulk conductivity of A-site divalent acceptor-doped non-stoichiometric sodium bismuth titanate

Author Solid State Ionics
Source
Fan Yang, Patrick Wu, Derek C. Sinclair
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Bismuth-deficient sodium bismuth titanate (nominally Na0.5Bi0.49TiO2.985, NB0.49T) is a good oxide-ion conductor. Here we report the influence of A-site divalent ions, M2 + = Ca2 +, Sr2 + and Ba2 +, on the electrical properties of NB0.49T. A-site divalent doping for Bi3 + enhances the bulk (grain) conductivity by ~ one order of magnitude without changing the conduction mechanism, which is attributed to an increase in the oxygen vacancy concentration based on the doping mechanism Bi3 + + ½ O2 − → M2 +. Among these three dopants, Sr2 + is the most effective in increasing the bulk conductivity due to a combination of its smaller mismatch in ion size with Bi3 +, its intermediate polarisability and lower bond strength to oxygen compared to Ca2 + and Ba2 +. Doping strategies for further improvements to bulk conductivity of NBT materials are discussed based on these results. Comparison with other oxide-ion conductors and initial stability test under reducing atmosphere show the doped non-stoichiometric NBT materials are promising for low and intermediate temperature applications.
Keywords Sodium bismuth titanate; Oxide-ion conductors; Doping; Non-stoichiometry
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.09.016
Link

Effect of high pressures and temperatures on the structure and properties of CaCu3Ti4O12

Authors N. I. Kadyrova, N. V. Mel’nikova, I. S. Ustinova, Yu. G. Zainulin
Source
Inorganic Materials
Volume: 52, Issue: 10, Pages: 1051–1054
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract We have prepared ceramic CaCu3Ti4O12 samples by solid-state reaction and investigated the effect of high-pressure/high-temperature processing (p = 8.0 GPa, t = 1100C) on the structure and electrical properties of CaCu3Ti4O12.
Keywords High pressures and temperatures, microstructure, dielectric properties, CaCu3Ti4O12
Remark DOI: 10.1134/S0020168516100083
Link

Evaluation of La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 protective coating on ferritic stainless steel interconnect for SOFC application

Authors R.K. Lenka, P.K. Patro, Jyothi Sharma, T. Mahata, P.K. Sinha
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Ferritic stainless steel (SS) interconnect used for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell has issues associated with the growth of oxide scale on the surface and evaporation of chromium species to the cathode leading to increase in polarization resistance and hence, overall cell resistance. Protective coating is essentially applied over the SS surface to restrict the above phenomena. In the present investigation, strontium doped lanthanum manganese chromite (LSCM) of composition La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 has been explored as a possible protective coating material on ferritic SS interconnect surface. For this application, fine LSCM powder was synthesized by solution polymerization method. Terpineol based slurry of LSCM was formulated and used for coating on ferritic SS surface by screen printing. LSCM coated ferritic SS was exposed to moist oxygen at 800 C for 300 h and area specific resistance (ASR) of the coating was found to be as low as 2.0 mΩ cm2 after exposure. Microstructure of LSCM coating and the chromium oxide film was investigated using SEM and EDS. The results indicate that LSCM can form an effective protective coating on ferritic stainless steel for SOFC interconnect application.
Keywords Interconnect; Protective coating; LSCM; SOFC
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.08.143
Link

Solid oxide carbonate composite fuel cells: Size effect on percolation

Authors Shalima Shawuti, , Mehmet Ali Glgn
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract In the studies of solid oxide carbonate composite fuel cell, percolation behaviour of the two phases was investigated as a function of particle size of the oxide phase. The ratio of amount of samarium doped ceria (SDC; Sm0.2Ce0.8O) to Na2CO3 was varied to determine an optimum ionic conductivity as function of oxide particle size. The roles of both phases in the composite electrolyte were investigated. SDC particles were mixed in different amounts of Na2CO3 to obtain composites with carbonate ratios from 1 wt% to 50 wt%. Micro-structural investigations showed that Na2CO3 phase served as the matrix in the micro-structure gluing the oxide particles together. The lowest and the highest carbonate ratios caused low conductivities in the composite as in these samples the 3D connectivity of both phases were disrupted. Low conductivity at both ends of the mixture composition could be interpreted as none of the components of the composite dominated the ionic conductivity. The highest conductivity was obtained at 10 wt% Na2CO3 amount in the composite electrolyte when nano-sized SDC (5–10 nm) oxide powders were used. Two different particle sizes of SDC powders were used to show that the optimum phase ratio, i.e. percolation of both phases, is function of particle size as well. The conductivity in the composite showed percolation behaviour with respect to the two constituent phases.
Keywords Composite electrolyte; SOFC; Interface; Percolation; Carbonate; Impedance
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.208, in press
Link

Insights into the enhancement of oxygen mass transport properties of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite interface-dominated thin films

Authors F. Chiabrera, A. Morata, M. Pacios, A. Tarancn
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystals for a comprehensive electrochemical characterization of the material acting as a cathode. A physically-meaningful electrical model was employed to fit the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results in order to extract the main oxygen mass transport parameters as a function of the temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen diffusion and surface exchange coefficients extracted from the analysis showed several orders of magnitude of enhancement with respect to the bulk values reported in the literature and an unexpectedly low dependence with the oxygen partial pressure. Different observations were combined to propose a mechanism for the enhanced incorporation of oxygen in interface-dominated thin films mainly based on the high concentration of oxygen vacancies expected in the grain boundaries.
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.08.009
Link

Formation of solid solutions in the CdSe–PbSe system under the action of high pressures and temperatures

Authors A. Yu. Chufarov, N. V. Melnikova, N. V. Zarubina, A. N. Ermakov, E. G. Vovkotrub, L. N. Maskaeva, V. F. Markov, Yu. G. Zainulin
Source
Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Volume: 61, Issue: 8, Pages: 1013–1018
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract A method was proposed for producing solid solutions in the CdSe–PbSe systems, which is based on heat and high pressure treatment. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed the formation of substitutional solid solutions CdxPb1–xSe with the NaCl structure, which contained 20, 40, 60, and 80 mol % cadmium selenide. The solid solutions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, gas pycnometry, and Raman spectroscopy.
Remark DOI: 10.1134/S0036023616080052
Link

Comparison of characteristics of solid oxide fuel cells with YSZ and CGO film solid electrolytes formed using magnetron sputtering technique

Authors A. A. Solov’ev, A. V. Shipilova, A. N. Koval’chuk, I. V. Ionov, S. V. Rabotkin
Source
Russian Journal of Electrochemistry
Volume: 52, Issue: 7, Pages: 662–668
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract The work describes the methods of manufacturing single cells of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with thin–film YSZ and CGO electrolytes and also with the bilayer YSZ/CGO electrolyte. Formation of YSZ and CGO films on the supporting NiO–YSZ anode of SOFC was carried out using the combined electron–ionic–plasma deposition technique. The microstructure and phase composition of the formed coatings are studied and also comparative analysis of electrochemical characteristics of single fuel cells with different electrolytes is performed. It is shown that the maximum power density of 1.35 W/cm2 at the temperature of 800C is obtained for the cell with bilayer YSZ/CGO electrolyte. However, the highest performance at lower working temperatures (650–700C) is characteristic for the fuel cell with single–layer CGO electrolyte; its power density is 600–650 mW/cm2.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell, CGO, YSZ, bilayer electrolyte, magnetron sputtering, pulsed electron–beam treatment
Remark DOI: 10.1134/S102319351607017X
Link

Nanolayered solid electrolyte (GeSe2)30(Sb2Se3)30(AgI)40/AgI: A new hypothesis for the conductivity mechanism in layered AgI

Authors Yury S. Tveryanovich, Andrei V. Bandura, Svetlana V. Fokina, Evgeny N. Borisov, Robert A. Evarestov
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 294, Pages: 82–89
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Using the laser ablation method, films comprised of alternating layers of AgI and (GeSe2)30(Sb2Se3)30(AgI)40 glass were obtained. Individual layer thickness amounts to 10 15 nm, and the total number of layers is about 100. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and film conductivity measurements were carried out during several cycles of heating up to 200 C and cooling to room temperature. It was established that after three cycles of thermal processing specific lateral conductivity of the film is equal to 0.3 S cm− 1 and conductivity activation energy is equal to 0.07 eV at room temperature. Attempts to explain such a high conductivity value based on XRD results did not yield satisfactory results. However, our first-principle calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) showed that in the free layer composed of four AgI planes a rearrangement occurs, resulting in formation of the stable structure of two silver planes on the inside and two iodine planes on the outside (I–Ag–Ag–I). Rearrangement of similar stack of eight or twelve atomic planes results in formation of two or three I–Ag–Ag–I layers loosely bound to each other, accordingly. This suggests that increase in specific conductivity growth of multilayer film as a consequence of cyclic heating and cooling may be connected with AgI stratification on its boundary with chalcogenide glass and following stabilization of layered phases mentioned above. The existence of an empty space between the layers that is constrained by iodine ion planes should facilitate silver ion diffusion along the layers.
Keywords Glass-composite; Laser-ablation method; Ionic conductivity; AgI polymorphs; DFT calculations
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2016.07.004
Link

Tin–Zinc oxide composite ceramics for selective CO sensing

Authors Paul Chesler, Cristian Hornoiu, Susana Mihaiu, Cornel Munteanu, Mariuca Gartner
Source
Ceramics International
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Composite metal oxide gas sensors were intensely studied over the past years having superior performance over their individual oxide components in detecting hazardous gases. A series of pellets with variable amounts of SnO2 (0–50 mol%) was prepared using wet homogenization of the component oxides leading to the composite tin-zinc ceramic system formation. The annealing temperature was set to 1100 C. The samples containing 2.5 mol% SnO2 and 50 mol% SnO2 were annealed also at 1300 C, in order to observe/to investigate the influence of the sintering behaviour on CO detection. The sensor materials were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The increase in the SnO2 amount in the composite ceramic system leads to higher sample porosity and an improved sensitivity to CO. It was found that SnO2 (50 mol%) - ZnO (50 mol%) sample exhibits excellent sensing response, at a working temperature of 500 C, for 5 ppm of CO, with a fast response time of approximately 60 s and an average recovery time of 15 min. Sensor selectivity was tested using cross-response to CO, methane and propane. The results indicated that the SnO2 (50 mol%)-ZnO (50 mol%) ceramic compound may be used for selective CO sensing applications.
Keywords SnO2–ZnO; Composites; Sensors; Selective detection of CO
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.07.102
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Synthesis and electrical properties of new perovskite-like AMn3V4O12 (A = Ca, Ce, and Sm) compounds

Authors N. I. Kadyrova, Yu. G. Zaynulin, A. P. Tyutyunnik, N. V. Melnikova, A. A. Mirzorakhimov
Source
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics
Volume: 80, Issue: 6, Pages: 620–623
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract AMn3V4O12 (A = Ca, Ce, and Sm) compounds with a perovskite structure are synthesized at high pressures and temperatures. The crystalline structure of these compounds (space group Im3Z = 2) is determined via X-ray analysis. If ions in the A sublattice are changed in the order Ca2+–Sm3+–Ce3+, the valence is redistributed from Ca2+Mn32+V44+O12 to Sm3+Mn32+V43.75+O12, and to Ce3+Mn32+V43.75+O12. The temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity are studied.
Remark Link
norecs.com

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